* Silica has many industrial applications in abrasives and polishes, in glass manufacture, fillers and extenders, silica brick manufacture, as a catalyst, in specialty coatings, cleansers, ceramics, electronics, optics and refractories, in ferro-silicon manufacture, rubber, and as a frac sand.
* Processing of silica of specific quality yields several types of speciality silicas. These include colloidal, fumed, fused, high purity ground, silica gel, and precipitated silica.
* Colloidal silica is mainly used as a high temperature binder for silicon wafer polishing and carbonless paper.Fumed silica has unique strength, thixotropic properties and flatting properties, is a valuable ingredient in rubber, plastics, coatings,cement and sealants.
* Fused silica is produced by fusion of very high quality silica sand feedstock in electric arc and resistance furnaces. The resulting product is very different from the original silica sand due to the extremely high quality, consistent chemistry, high resistance to thermal shock and low thermal conductivity. It is therefore suitable as a filler for electronic encapsulants, refractory and investment castings and specialty coatings.